Anemia is usual illness nowadays and can be controlled by nursing diagnosis for anemia. It is an effective remedy and saves the patient from many other serious disorders. Anemia is a condition in which the production of red blood cells in the body is not up to the requirement. Red blood cells make up large fraction of PCV (packed cell volume) of blood, and their function is to transport oxygen to the tissues. They have a red pigment in their cytoplasm, called hemoglobin. This pigment is an oxygen carrier and mainly responsible for gaseous exchange at tissue’s level. In anemic patient, fewer red blood cells are produced, and enough oxygen is not provided to tissues. Resultantly, hypoxia happens and if this condition is untreated for a longer time, necrosis is caused.
Effects of Anemia:
Anemia can cause various effects ranging from paleness and fatigue to serious problems like heart failure. Major effects include:
• Dizziness – weakness in anemic patient causes dizziness.
• Short breath- Due to hypoxia, patient suffers from succinct breathing.
• Arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat)
• Poor pregnancy outcomes- during pregnancy, if anemia occurs, it can result in damages to fetus and affects the normal birth process. Other complications may arise if nursing diagnosis of anemia is not performed.
• Dementia (memory loss) – if untreated for a long time, anemia causes memory loss and other serious problems.
• Coronary diseases- this is the most serious outcome of anemia. If red blood cells are less in body, cells of heart do not receive sufficient oxygen. As a result, coronary issues arise.
• Stroke- stroke is caused due to insufficient blood supply to the brain cells.
Causes of Anemia:
There are many factors, which can be responsible for causing anemia. Most common are:
• Deficiency of iron- iron is the main component used for the production of RBCs. Its deficiency lowers the red blood cells’ synthesis.
• Deficiency of folic acid and B12- folic acid is an essential component for red blood cell maintenance and its deficient leads to anemia.
• Low production of erythropoietin hormone- Erythropoietin hormone is mainly responsible for stimulation RBC production. It is secreted by kidneys, and its deficiency leads to less production of red blood cells.
• Excessive loss of blood- immoderate loos of blood in any injury or traumatic condition can lead to anemia. Traumatic history of the patient is also documented during nursing diagnosis for anemia.
• Pregnancy- hormonal and metabolic changes during pregnancy can cause anemia. Regular nursing diagnosis for anemia is suggested to pregnant women.
Different types of anemia:
• Anemia has many types depending on the causative factors.
• Hemophilia- this is the type of anemia, which runs tends to transfer in families. It a genetic disorder and can be further classified into various types depending upon the clotting factor affected.
• Pernicious anemia- this type of anemia is caused due to deficiency of vitamin B12. When the intestine does not absorb enough B12, it occurs. During nursing diagnosis for anemia, functioning of the intestine is also checked.
• Sickle-cell anemia- this type of anemia is also a genetic disorder and caused due to mutation.
• Aplastic anemia- it is caused due to medicines, drugs and other chemicals. The ability of the body to produce enough red blood cells is affected.
Nursing diagnosis of anemia:
Nursing diagnosis of anemia is not so difficult as its symptoms are not very major. Skin gets paler and other metabolic abnormalities arise, which are apparently harmless. Different types of anemia involve distinctive nursing diagnosis and interventions. However, most common are:
• Observation of vital organs, mucous membranes and skin color
• Observation of delay in responses like verbal
• Documentation of pain and confusion
• Monitoring tolerance level during fatigue and activity
• Documentation of sleep pattern
All these documentation helps in making effective nursing diagnosis for anemia.