State in which an individual experiences a change of normal bowel habits, characterized by decreasing the frequency of defecation and / or removal of hard, dry stools.

Related factors:

– Insufficient intake of water and food.

– Decreased physical activity.

– Personal habits.

– Medication.

Gastrointestinal obstructive lesions.

– Chronic use of laxatives.

– Pain with defecation.

– Lack of privacy.

– Pregnancy.

– Weak abdominal muscles.

– Emotional disorders.


– Frequency below the usual pattern.

– Hard stool.

– Mass palpable.

– Straining to defecate.

– Decreased bowel sounds.

Feeling of fullness or abdominal or rectal pressure.

– Number of stools less than usual.

– Nausea.

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